TRANSLATION NOTES: Please read some comments at the end of this post.
The multipurpose criterion in the cadastre is highly questionable; the reason is not its utility but also the data sustainability. If we made a extreme exercise (as well as capon’s cock (*) :)), it might be that “all” the data are useful sooner or later, but for practical purposes, many of these data are a weight to sustainability in the medium term would dismissed his capture or update. When someone wants to make a “multipurpose” cadastre should ask questions like:
Who will consult the data?
What level of accuracy is expected?
Who will update the data?
How often will it be updated?
It is possible to identify that not all cadastral data sheet information is “necessary” immediately, but some data of general purpose compared with “others” (not the cadastre) could be checked but never updated. There are also cadastre data that could not be updated, not because it cannot but because they become unsustainable or there is another institution with better conditions (or interests), although these data are necessary, from the time its update does not depend on land registry, it should be considered secondary or for specific use. To the extent of minimizing “not necessary” data and follow one of the principles that the INSPIRE initiative has recovered, which states that information must be captured only once in field, data handling will be more sustainable.
An interesting way to separate the data is depending on their relationship with the institutions involved, such as the Municipal Cadastral Department, the National Cadastre, the Land Registry, Planning Office, etc. Much of this change in accordance with the laws of each country, but it is important to remember that the cadastre records “the facts” and anything that is not “done” very well may be responsibility of another instance; also separate data that are captured in field, and that will be used in further process.
Lemmen separates the information from the three main figures of the Cadastre: Object, Subject and Law. For educational purposes we have called Damages and transactions at related figures (usually composed of data from post-capture analysis) for making also the exercise easy to remember:
Law (The relationship between subject and object)
Attributions (Relations between the object and the law)
Transactions (Relations between the subject and the law)
Subject (people, natural or legal)
Object, this is the reality representation recorded at the maps and documents level. Here appear then:
- The plot, which may well be sub-plot, multiple plot, registered plot and service parcel (shared in condominium) but for general rule has a geometry-related data. Accuracy is a matter of relevance for cadastre and long-term vision.
- The building, which may include construction, fixed installations, improvements and even the goods not georeferenced. In rural case, there will also be the permanent improvements as crops.
- Also at this level the goods may be in a position of geo-referenced document (such as an affidavit), as a point (as timely cadastre or text-parcel), as spaghetti (like CAD maps without integration of geodatabase).
Subject, this is the representation of individuals, and may be natural, not natural persons (like legal) and may also have groups.
Law, this is the relationship between people (subjects) and goods (objects). Here it may be included not only legally real registered rights but also the fact, but reflect a linkage of possession, ownership or leasehold.
Attributions are actions that affect either attributive or restrictive forms of right to use, domain, room, usufruct, or transfer of the object. It resembles the law, but it is an extension of this that registration systems end up giving many names (such a marginal note) because it’s not its competition, or at least not its accuracy. This can be a reference, but in general they are based on a spatial coincidence that affects the parcel, whether by public or private law such as:
- A high voltage line, which restricts the use or habitation, but not the domain
- A subway train, which passes down many buildings, also applied to the 3D cadastre, when a property is on a public highway.
- A control system of wells abatement that restricts the underground use for water extraction purposes.
- An area subject to flooding, a protected area, a bonded step etc.
Generally the damages are temporary or can change over time effect, for example:
A parcel may be within a legal nature of common land, for purposes of titling, the cooperative defines who issues the title certificate, but once registered can be treated as private despite being within a common land nature. It did not change the affected region but the effect.
Also the damages do not require office partitions, if it’s not necessary, for example:
A parcel may be partially affected by an urban boundary, which restricts its partial use, but need not be segregated, unless the city limits affect who should name it in or out.
And the effects are the “facts” while they aren’t in a special mandatory regime, for example:
A parcel placed partially within an easement road or protected area. The cadastre says “It’s now like this “, but it is relevant to another institution to decide the action for adjustment purposes.
Transactions are actions performed over the acquired right. This can be: the measurement, construction, renovation, transfer or appraisal.
Transactions should be subject to capture and update from the relevant entities by law. To give an example:
The appraisal is not a fact, but a transaction on a building made in time, with a method and which will be valid until there is an assessment update. But isn’t cadastre relevance (as a general data) the appraisal, but a transaction for business or tax purposes. It means it is a fact for tax use or added value studies; its updating should be responsible for another Department even with appropriation to the cadastre.
To partially close the item on which we will be back later, we can define that the “General multipurpose” data should reduce to a minimum under the jurisdiction of the cadastre, and it should be find separated from the “multipurpose of specific use “.ones. It’s provided to fill the cadastre basic approaches with the minimum requirements like: taxation, socio-economic, legal and soils use.
(*) Cuento del gallo capón: A tale appeared in Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s novel: ‘100 years of solitude’.